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منتدى طلاب جامعة الحديدة


    ESR Test

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    عمر النجاده
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    بطاقة الشخصية
    تخصصي: طب
    المحافظة: الحديدة

    ESR Test

    مُساهمة من طرف عمر النجاده في الأربعاء مايو 21, 2008 11:39 pm

    Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)l

    Principle

    When red cells are allowed to settle from their plasma, the speed of their fall is known as the sedimentation rate.

    It is a measure of the suspension stability of red cells.
    It indirectly measures an increase in fibrinogen and serum globulins.
    An increase in either of these results in an increased ESR.

    Red cells settle out in three stages:

    1- Initial period of aggregation:
    rouleaux is formed, and sedimentation is relatively slow; lasts about 10 minutes.

    2- Fast settling stage:
    settling rate is constant; most of the settling occurs at this stage; lasts about 40 minutes.

    3- Packing stage:
    continues for 10 minutes and longer.

    Reagents, Equipment

    Wintrobe Method

    1. Wintrobe Tubes
    2. 9-inch glass Pasteur pipettes
    3. Sedimentation Tube rack
    4. Patient EDTA specimen
    5. Timer

    Procedure

    Wintrobe Method

    1. Blood should be collected in an EDTA anticoagulant and well-mixed before being used.
    2. Using a 9-inch Pasteur pipette that will reach the bottom of the tube, slowly fill the tube with blood, avoiding air bubbles in the column.
    3. Adjust the meniscus of the specimen to the "0" line at the top of the tube.
    4. Place the tube in an upright position in a rack that will maintain the tube in this position.
    5. Set a timer for 1 hour.
    6. At the end of 1 hour, read the fall of erythrocytes by recording the level of erythrocytes in the tube. The ESR is read on the same side as the "0" on the tube. Reading from the top downward the ESR is read as the fall of cells in mm per 1 hour of time.

    Interpretation of Results

    Normal values

    Adult Males:
    0 to 9 mm/hr

    Adult Females:
    0 to 15 mm/hr

    The ESR is not a diagnostic test for any specific disease, but it is a useful supplemental test. It is often used to follow the course of an inflammatory process.

    Disease states with increased ESR.

    1. Acute infections
    2. Cancer
    3. Rheumatoid arthritis
    4. Multiple myeloma
    5. Pregnancy after the third month

    Sources of Error

    A. General
    1. Dirty tubes
    2. Air bubbles
    3. Clotted specimen
    4. Dimensions of tube

    B. Increases ESR
    1. Tilted tube
    2. Increased temperature
    3. Anemia
    4. Increased fibrinogen
    5. Macrocytic RBC's

    C. Decreases ESR
    1. Excessive anticoagulant
    2. Old blood
    3. Decreased temperature
    4. Presence of abnormally shaped RBC's
    5. Polycythemia
    6. Microcytic RBC's

    D. Various Methods for performing ESR's
    1. Wintrobe
    2. Westergren
    3. ZSR: Zeta Sedimentation Ratio. This method involves spinning capillary tubes in a special centrifuge called a zetafuge.
    4. Cutler - micromethod
    5. Landau - micromethod

    Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
    Westergren Tube Method


    Materials Needed:

    Westergren tube and reservoir
    Gauze squares
    Sedimentation rack
    Clock

    Procedure

    1. Thoroughly mix blood specimen.
    2. Fill reservoir to mark.
    3. Insert Westergren tube gently into blue cap.
    4. Gently work tube down to bottom of reservoir. The tube must be inserted all the way to the bottom. Absorb any excess blood with a gauze square.
    5. Apply pressure to tube near its entrance to the blue cap to adjust the blood level down to zero.
    6. Place tube in stand and record patient's name and position # in stand.
    7. Set timer for 1 hour
    8. At the end of 1 hour (+ 5 minutes) read how far rbc's have settled and report in mm/hr. Be sure to read from top to bottom and not from the bottom up.




    طبعا اعتذر لان الارقام لم تنزل الا بالعربية لا ادري ما السبب ؟؟؟


    _________________

    Aflatoon
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    رد: ESR Test

    مُساهمة من طرف Aflatoon في الخميس أكتوبر 25, 2012 11:33 am

    Wink Thankssssss Dear Omar

    بلادي اليمن
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    تاريخ التسجيل : 25/07/2010

    بطاقة الشخصية
    تخصصي: شريعة وقانون
    المحافظة: الحديدة

    رد: ESR Test

    مُساهمة من طرف بلادي اليمن في الأحد فبراير 17, 2013 8:14 am

    جزيت خيرا وكفيت شرا دكتور عمر

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو السبت ديسمبر 03, 2016 4:51 pm